# Chapter 4 Different types of plots

What I cannot create, I do not understand.
Richard Feynman

There are a few different plotting packages in R, but the most elegant and versatile one is ggplot211. gg stands for grammar of graphics which means that we can make a plot by describing it one component at a time. In other words, we build a plot by adding layers to it.

This does not have to be many layers, the simplest ggplot() consists of just two components:

• the variables to be plotted;
• a geometrical object (e.g., point, line, bar, box, etc.).

ggplot() calls geometrical objects geoms.

Figure 4.1 shows some example steps for building a scatter plot, including changing its appearance (‘theme’) and faceting - an efficient way of creating separate plots for subgroups.

1. The name of the package is ggplot2, but the function is called ggplot(). For everything you’ve ever wanted to know about the grammar of graphics in R, see Wickham (2016).